MONUMENTS TO HISTORICAL FIGURES AND POLITICIANS

MONUMENT TO THE FOUNDERS OF THE CITY

In 1894, in Odessa’s hundred years old birthday, it was decided to create a monument to those who had founded and built our city. Among them the Empress Catherine II. As thoughts, she gave the name to Odessa. Here she is shown holding a scroll in his hand, on which are inscribed the words: “Here will be  the city and the port under my command.” Below are the figures of other prominent personalities who have taken a direct part in the birth of a new city – de Ribas, Prince Potemkin, Count Zubov, engineer de Volan.
In 1900, a monument to Empress Catherine II and her companions was unveiled. Sculptors: M.Popov, B.Eduards, L.Mentsione. Architect Yu.M.Dmitrenko.
In 1901, at the Paris conference architectural Catherine area with a standing monument has been recognized as the best architectural complex in whole Europe. Each of the eight houses surrounding Catherine’s Square, is an architectural monument.
In 1920, the St. Catherine area and the street was named after Karl Marx. The bronze figure of Catherine and associates dismantled and handed over to the museum, and the pedestal of the monument was used for the previous installation of the sculpture of Karl Marx, but he stood not for long – it was knocked by the wind. Subsequently, in the center of the square was a flower bed.
In 1965 there was a monument to the sailors, participants in the uprising on the battleship “Potemkin” in 1905.
In 2007, the Odessa City Council decided to restore the lost monument to the founders of Odessa.  The monument of Potemkin sailors was moved to the customs area, near the entrance to the port. New monument in exactly the same as the original monument, graced the area since 1900, a new bronze figure of the Russian Empress Catherine II was performed by Kiev sculptor O.Chernoivanov using saved photos and pieces of her associates used the original (they kept all the time in the courtyard of the museum of local lore, as well as the upper part of the original monument, which can be seen there to this day). This is commander in chief of the southern army operating against the Turks, Potemkin, head Hadjibeyan assault and superior newly built city, Vice Admiral Joseph de Ribas, superior of the Novorossiysk Territory Count Platon Zubov, builder of the port of Odessa and the city Franz de Volan. On the pedestal – the majestic, full-length figure of the sovereign, dressed in royal robes, and trample foot the Turkish flag; left hand raised, as if pointing to the port, and the right – a decree on the founding of Odessa. Around the capital, on its conical part, a magnificent bronze wreath, half of which – of laurel leaves, signifying the glory and the other half – from oak leaves, symbolizing strength. The pedestal was made completely from scratch. Its shape is interesting: it resembles a pier at the port.
The monument was unveiled in October 27, 2007 in the second time.

MONUMENT TO DUKE DE RICHELIEU (“DUKE”)
Dedicated to Armand Emmanuel de Septimania Sofia de Vinero du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu. It is a bronze statue of Richelieu and three brass high relief, symbolizing the agriculture, trade and justice.
Duc de Richelieu (1766-1822) was born in France, in one of the most well-known aristocratic families throughout Europe (all heard about Cardinal, known for “the Three musketeers”). When was the French Revolution, de Richelieu, staying true to the monarchy, emigrated to Russia, where he entered the service. He took part in the storming of Izmail in 1790, for which he received the order and the name of the sword. In 1803, Richelieu was the mayor of Odessa, and in 1805 – the governor-general of all the Novorossiysk Territory. De Richelieu achieved temporary relief of taxes on residents of Odessa. When it rapidly increased trading activity in the port of Odessa. Among the initiatives of de Richelieu – the promotion of trade, population growth, improvement of agriculture, development of industry, development of education, science and culture. After the defeat of Napoleon (1814) and the restoration of the power of the Bourbon Duke returned to Paris and became Foreign Minister and Prime Minister of France there. Odessans did not want to let him go. He died at age 56 in Paris, to the great sorrow of Odessa residents. His contribution to the development of the city can not be overstated.
One of the oldest monuments of Odessa. Was established in 1827 (according to other sources, in 1826 or in 1828), the Odessans call it simply “Duke”. Duke In French and in English it means Duke. Sculptures and high reliefs cast in bronze in St. Petersburg. Pedestal outstanding Petersburg architect and architect F.K.Boffo A.I.Melnikov. Sculptor – I.P.Martos. De Richelieu on the monument created in  bit more than natural growth. On the monument you can see traces of bullets, as well as in the core of the pedestal. In Soviet times, there were plans to put instead of Duke the  monument to Kotovsky. Fortunately, this did not happened.
As you know, Odessans have a particular sense of humor. They did not spared this monument, of course. Known to everyone Odessans saying “Look at Duke from the second hatch” may puzzle unspoiled citizens if they still stand up to the specified hatch, but nowadays most of the tourists and tourists immediately begin to giggle without further explanations.

MONUMENT TO DE RIBAS
Spanish nobleman by birth, Russian military and statesman. Founder of a port and the city. He was called Joseph (Osip) Mikhailovich in Russia. He was born in Naples and died in St. Petersburg. Since 1769 he was in the Russian service. He took an active part in the wars between Russia and Turkey, which resulted in the Russian Empire at the beginning of Crimea withdrew and then Bessarabia. For participation in the capture of Izmail, Suvorov called de Ribas to as “the hero of the Danube”, and Catherine II granted him a sword with diamonds and estate with 800 souls farmers in the province of Polotsk.
After another war between Russia and Turkey,  the territory between the Bug and the Dniester was ceded to the Russian Empire. In 1793, Rear-Admiral de Ribas was appointed as commander of all the Black Sea Fleet propeller, and in May 27, 1794 in the rank of vice admiral was appointed chief commander of the port and the city Hadzhibey (in January 1795 renamed to Odessa).
De Ribas was intelligent and energetic person and knew the area. He made a plan to build a port in Hadzhibey with de flounces, and chosed this place because there was a bay where the sea is almost never freezes. In its draft de Ribas took into account everything, even the financial costs. Aug. 22, 1794 (old style) was solemnly laid the foundation of the city, the foundation of the port, shipyard, two merchant piers and two churches in the name promoters of navigators of St. Nicholas and St. Catherine.
In honor of IM Ribas de main street of the city was later named Deribasovskaya.
It is interesting that de Ribas had the enemy: Vice Admiral Mordvinov, who applied for dispensation port near Ochakov. De Ribas managed to persuade Catherine II on his side. So Odessa owes its birth to his own – if he had not, perhaps, there would be, at best, a small town.
The monument at the beginning of the street named after the founder of the city put in a day of the bicentenary of Odessa (2 September 1994). A.V.Knyazik was a sculptor, and V.L.Glazyrin an architect.

MONUMENT TO COUNT VORONTSOV
Mikhail S. Vorontsov (1782-1856) – a large military and statesman, governor-general of the Novorossiysk Territory and Bessarabia to the 1823. Childhood and adolescence he spent in England, where his father, Earl S.R.Vorontsov, lived for more than 40 years. Received upbringing and education in England, decent young English lord, Vorontsov in 1801 returned to Russia to enter the service. In 1802 he took part in the Russian-Turkish and Russian-French War in 1812, and commanded a division in the army of Bagration where was wounded in the Battle of Borodino. In 1815-1818 commander of the occupation corps in France, where he met the Countess E.K.Branitskaya. Their wedding took place on April 20, 1819 in Paris. In 1823 he was appointed as a Governor-General of Novorossia and Bessarabia; and remained in that post for 21 years. Much efforts he spent on the economic development of these regions, particularly in Odessa and the Crimea, especially  on the navigation device of the Black Sea.
Governor General patronized to Alexander Pushkin, who waas exiled to the south. It is assumed that the friction between the two began because of the passion of the poet to Vorontsov’s wife. However, there is also an opinion that actually Vorontsov was just unhappy with Pushkin as its employee (it should be recalled that that was in the public service and worked under the command of Vorontsov).
In 1856, on the day of the coronation of Alexander II, Vorontsov was granted to General Marshal. He died in the same year, on November 6 in Odessa, where he was buried in the nearby of the cathedral church.
The authority of his love and respect of the citizens were so great that soon after the death of Vorontsov on the extraordinary meeting of the Society of Agriculture of South Russia, which president he was,  unanimously approved a proposal to build a monument to him. Many people took part in raising money for the construction of the monument. Initially,  37 000 rubles was collected, and the contributions were from a few thousand to a few rubles. Donations came from all corners of the Russian Empire.
The monument project was made by famous sculptor F.Brugger. Architect – F.K.Boffo. The monument consists of a pedestal, a bronze statue and three bas-reliefs depicting the battle of Craon, the taking of Varna and agriculture and trade, which developed rapidly under the patronage of Vorontsov. The inscription on the monument should read: “His Serene Highness Prince Mikhail Semenovich Vorontsov from grateful countrymen. 1863 “. But today, on the front side of the pedestal there is a laconic inscription: Vorontsov. The height of bronze figure – 3.2 m. The total height of the monument – more than 8 meters. The look  of Vorontsov, despite the enormity of the statue, bears a striking resemblance to the Prince because the sculptor took advantage of the last portrait of the Berlin master of portraiture Franz Kruger. At the request of the Committee the pedestal should be made of “ore-boulder”, produced on the southern coast of Crimea in the memory of the late Prince works in the region. Opening of the monument took place on 8 November 1863.
When the 30 years of the twentieth century it was decided to destroy the monument, along with the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral, this plan did not worked – chain around the monument which was fixed on a powerful tractor, just snapped. So the monument remained in place for centuries!

MONUMENT TO MARAZLI
Monument to the famous Odessa City Mayor Grigory Marazli was opened on the Greek square  on the day of the 210th anniversary of Odessa – September 2, 2004. In 2008 it was moved to a new location and is now located at Marazlievskaya street.
The monument to Gregory Marazli was created by Odessa sculptor and architect M.Murmanov A.Knyazik.
Marazli headed the Odessa City Council for 17 years (1878-1894) and became famous not only as a public figure, but also as a philanthropist and educator.
Grigory Marazli (July 25, 1831- May 1, 1907) – was Mayor of Odessa from 1878 to 1895.
During his reign there was built the Opera House, a monument to Alexander Pushkin on the Primorsky Boulevard, setteled the Alexander Column, obtained an agreement to build the park – now it’s calling Shevchenko Park. During his work in Odessa was build the system of gas lighting (street lamps), a tram, and also medical institution on Kuyalnik was opened…
After the death of Marazli, he was rested in the Holy Trinity church. but in the 30 years of the twentieth century his remains were removed and thrown away…

MONUMENT TO ATAMAN HOLOVATY
A magnificent monument in the historical center of Odessa called the monument to Emperor Alexander II and was erected in 1891. It was an impressive structure with a height of 12.5 meters, where architectural finishes installation symbolic Monomakh with a cross lying on a giant cushion with hanging tassels. This kind of pedestal is 2012 year after restoration as it was during the construction in the late 19 century. For this considerable segment of the appearance of the monument, its purpose and symbolism changed several times depending on the Supreme authorities, dominant in Odessa.
Deep history of the monument began in 1875, when the city hosted the Alexander II. He laid a decorative garden, personally landed the first Park tree is a perennial oak. This plant is then shielded Imperial fence with wrought-iron elements and hung a sign with memorable dates. Preserved archival photos and a few postcards, which is visible and oak, and the tall monument in honor of the king. The tree was destroyed in the Soviet period, replacing oak in fluffy town’s Christmas tree. In addition, historically, these places are of global importance for the city. Once on the local hills housed the famous Hadzhybeyskyy fortress, people can learn about it from the plaques on the monument itself. Next to visit is beach “Langeron”.